Thursday, August 23, 2007


Before I began my military life, doing thesis and other researches is what I do. So for a start, i would like to share my work for highschool graduate (well, they graduate because of this project),and maybe they can help your kiddos too...

The Problem and its Background
The process of invention is a creative and scientific endeavor to solve life's everyday problems. Technology is the culmination of all inventions.
Many students take today's inventions for granted and do not realize the simplest tools used thousands of years ago are the fore runners of modern technology.
It is important for our students to understand the history behind technology from the agricultural age to the industrial age, and finally to the period they are a living part of , the information age. Studying inventors and inventions will allow students the opportunity to visualize and understand the history of technology from the beginning to the present.
Using resource tools such as the Internet and nonfictional books exposes students to a vast amount of information about inventions and inventors. They are able to imagine the wonders of there works. Hence, on the sequence of time, this technology may passed so quickly that sometimes people weren’t able to flow with it, they are outcastes and left behind. These people are known to the society as poor people, and with them the wonders of improvised materials may work.
Statement of the Problem:
In order to determine the success of the improvised materials regarding the production of Hot Laminating Machine, the researcher would attempt to answer the following question:
What is a Laminating Machine?
What are the different types of laminating machines?
What is Hot Laminating Machine?
What are the composition/components of hot laminating machine?

Significance of the Study:
The research on the proposed improvised materials entitled "Hot Laminating Machine" is a significant study because it will emphasized the great used of piece of metal and the power of electricity in producing such wonderful product.
Secondly, the improvised materials serve as an inspiration for other researcher to find out some useful equipment that can be reproduced out of unwanted things.
Lastly, it will enhance the imagination of future researcher to developed more improvised materials from trash materials so that it can mold then to the idea of doing more with less.

Scope and Delimitation:
The research being conducted on the improvised material entitled " Improvised Laminating Machine" will evolved it’s study on the composition of the conventional hot laminating machine on the market as a pattern for the proposed improvised hot laminating machine of the research. Though the materials maybe differ, the researcher will focused it’s study on the element of hot lamination as it will discussed the surface, the temperature and time required as to produced the same quality as mentioned above. Furthermore, different type of laminating machine maybe written and compared with on the research but it is only for related study and literatures as reference to the study being conducted. Hence, the inventors of this magnificent work are not written because further study were not conducted in the research.

Definition of Terms:
Hot Laminators: These are the most common types of laminators. They use heat (220 to 300 degrees F) to apply the lamination.
Hot laminators provide a better quality lamination that is more resistant to wear and tear. This may be the preferred method of lamination for materials that are not effected by heat.
Cold Laminators: Cold laminators, such as the Brady BLS 1200 Laminator, use pressure sensitive adhesives to bind the lamination film.
Cold laminators are used when the material being laminated is sensitive to heat. For example, some ink jet printers use inks that can melt when heated. There are other types of printers that use heat sensitive paper. For these types of applications the cold laminator is the best choice.
Laminating pouches are pockets of laminating material into which the item to be laminated is placed.
Laminating films come in a variety widths and thickness. As with pouches, the thicker the film, the stiffer and more durable the laminated item will be.
Some laminating films are identified as being "low melt" films. These films require less heat and are used when laminating materials that are sensitive to high temperatures, such as photographs.
Films also provide the option of laminating one side or both sides of an item. Single-sided lamination is used, for example, to laminate a poster that is to be mounted on a backing board.
Laminating films are available in a variety of finishes such as gloss, matte and satin.


What kind of laminator you use depends mainly on the kind of document you need to laminate.
Hot Lamination: Hot laminators are the most common types of laminators. They use heat (180 to 300 degrees F) to laminate documents and other flat items. The heat melts an adhesive that results in the plastic laminate sticking to the material being laminated. Hot lamination can be used with any flat items that do not include inks or materials that will run or melt when exposed to high temperatures. Hot laminators provide a better quality, more durable lamination that is more resistant to wear and tear.
Cold Lamination: Cold lamination is your best option when laminating heat-sensitive documents. These would include faxes, photos, and documents printed with an ink jet printer. Cold lamination can be safer, and it provides better UV protection than hot lamination.
Cold laminating pouches use a "sticky" adhesive that is activated by pressure. Cold laminators are generally easy and safer to use than hot laminators because they do not get hot and in many cases do not even use electricity.
In both hot and cold lamination, the thicker the film or pouch, the stiffer and more durable the laminated item will be.
How does pouch lamination work?
What is a laminating pouch? Laminating pouches are pockets of laminating film into which the item to be laminated is placed. A hot laminator is used to seal the pouch and bind the layers together so that your document is laminated.
Hot pouches: Hot laminating pouches consists of two layers, a polyester-base film layer and an adhesive resin layer that are bonded together. When you run the pouch through your hot laminator, the heat melts the adhesive resin layer, which then spreads over the document, hardening as it cools and creating a bond between the paper and the polyester-based layer of the pouch.
The polyester and adhesive content in hot laminating pouches is defined as a ratio, such as 3/2 or 1/4. The first number represents the polyester content, while the second represents the adhesive content. Ratios with larger polyester contents produce stiffer lamination. Ratios with more adhesive contents will have a stronger bond. Stronger bonds are necessary when laminating thicker materials such as substrate backing or hard plastic.
Cold pouches: Cold lamination is used for heat sensitive documents. Cold laminating pouches use a "sticky" adhesive that is activated by pressure instead of heat allowing you to laminate items such as faxes, photos and ink-jet printer paper without damaging them.

Laminating pouch weights and finishes
Laminating pouches are available in two types of finishes:
Matte Finish - Non-reflective, slightly granular. Tends to make image colors more vivid.
Gloss Finish - Best for bright colors. Adds definition, radiance

Laminating pouch weights (thickness):
Laminating pouch thickness: "Mils" is a unit of measurement that expresses the thickness or weight of a laminating pouch. Each side of a laminating pouch has it's own mil thickness. A 5 mil pouch has a total thickness of 10 mils--5 mils for each sheet of film. The higher the mil number, the more rigid the laminated document will be.
This is true for bor both hot and cold lamination. The thicker the film or pouch, the stiffer and more durable the laminated item will be.
Standard film thickness for laminating pouches are 3 mil, 5 mil, 7 mil and 10mil. Laminating films are typically available in 1.5 mil, 3 mil, 5 mil and 10 mil thickness.
3 mil film (and thinner)Three mil and thinner films provide a flexible, lightweight covering. It will protect documents and other materials from spills, smudges, dirt, dust and some handling.

5 mil film
Provides better handling and UV protection than 3 mil film. Protects materials from long-term exposure to water (such as rain), wind and sun. Is resistant to crinkling, folding and bending.
7 mil and thicker film
Seven mil and thicker films provide maximum rigidity and the greatest protection. These films are excellent for materials that are handled extensively, such as menus and ID cards.
How flatbed laminators work:
Flatbed laminating is a method of bonding roll goods and sheets using dry adhesives, heat and pressure. Dry adhesives, which come as web, powder and film, are advantageous because they do not require long drying and curing tunnels to process. Instead, in flatbed laminating heat is quickly conducted through two belts—a spring loaded top belt and a bottom belt—into the laminate to heat activate the dry adhesives without the release of volatiles or smoke. The simultaneous application of heat and pressure produces high performance, clean bonding.
The materials being laminated are sandwiched between the belts and subjected to heat and pressure, not just for a spilt second as in nip laminating, but for a long dwell time. Moreover, whereas nip laminating isolates the heat and pressure components of the lamination process, flatbed laminating applies heat and pressure to the materials and the dry adhesives simultaneously for the full length of the process zone.
How to ensure a good lamination:
Ensure that you have the right type and weight of pouch for the item to be laminated. Refer to the manufacturer's guidelines.
Ensure that the heat and speed settings are correct. Refer to the manufacturer's guidelines.
Use a card carrier if appropriate. Refer to the manufacturer's guidelines.
Ensure that the item to be laminated is right up to sealed edge of pouch, allowing a 2mm (minimum) border around the rest of the document to avoid jamming.
Do not use 'self-made' chopped up pouches.
Ensure that the pouch to be used is the correct size for the job e.g. an A4 pouch for an A4 sheet. Where an incorrect pouch size is used, poor lamination and trapped pouches will result.
Do not fill the pouch with more than one item. Doing this will affect the overall strength and will disrupt the safe passage through the machine, resulting in crumpled and trapped pouches. See also item above.
If you need to laminate an oversized pouch, documents under 150 micron, film under 80 micron or a pouch containing more than one item, refer to the manufacturer's guidelines as a card carrier might be necessary.
When laminating irregular surfaces such as embossed or textured originals, laminate at maximum speed first, then laminate again at regular speed to avoid wrinkling.
Make sure that all pouches are fed in sealed end first.
Ensure that the rollers / plate are cleaned regularly as this prevents the build up of sticky residue which can also cause pouches to jam. Heat the machine to normal laminating temperature and then pass a non glossy piece of card through the machine as if laminating.

This chapter presents the research methodology, materials used, construction and its procedure and also the sampling design.
Chopping Board ( cut into 2 pieces )
Electric wire
Electrical tape
Power Indicator
Cloth-like adhesive tape
Metal plate (small & big)
Screw Driver
Soldering Iron and lead
Torque Drill
Electric Saw

* Prepare all the materials needed.
* Cut the chopping board into two using the electric saw.
* Clean the metal plate by using the torque machine.
On the chopping board, put a canal shape allowing the wirings of the metal plate to submerged to the chopping board. Do this both on the chopping board.
* Attached the filament between the big metal plate and closed it with the small metal plate.
* Attached the two metal plate besides each other, ensuring that the wirings will be align with the canal type opening made in the chopping board.
* Drill a small hole on the side of the metal plate.
* Screw it in the chopping board ensuring that the metal plate at the top and bottom will meet with each other.
*After the attachment, carefully align the wirings into the canal opening.
* With the help of the technician, let the wirings be attached to plugs, switch and to the power indicator.
* Solder all the wirings and cover it with electrical tape.
* Align all the wirings and enclosed them with the stik well enable them to sit in the hole.
* Let it dry for few minutes.
* While drying the glue, Drill a hole at the back of the chopping board and put/screw in the hinge.
* After drying the glue, put a cloth-like adhesive to the portion of the canal hole to cover up.
Analysis and Interpretation
Through the research being conducted, we found out that in order to produce a laminating machine, the product must have a good consistency on heat. By doing this so, the researcher made used of a metal plate from the sliding window and putting a trial and error on the said materials. With the help of the technician, we found out that using a filament, the regulation of heat at the surface of the metal plate maybe possible yet the laminating effect maybe negative at result. Hence, by the further study, we are able find out that a good time control and a clean surface of the metal can actually help for producing good lamination. Furthermore, we also find out that only 3mm of laminating film will enable our improvised materials to work well because by using a 5mm or 7mm, the lamination will be impossible to produced good lamination because of the thickness of the film. We also found out that pictures printed in a glossy type will only be cramped and destroy from our improvised laminating machine because of the heat that it produced.

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

To summarized the work done on the improvised materials, the researcher may stated that the research on the materials used are 100% useful to the project. By the used of this materials, the researcher are able to produced the heat surface of 180 to 330 F enabling the project to laminate. The researcher may also defined that there are materials that cannot be made used of the improvised materials like the glossy picture for it content may not be suitable to the heat surface. But beyond this, the improvised laminating machine are good at work.

The researcher may conclude that the improvised laminating machine being made are successful. With the trial and error process, the researcher found out things that may not be suitable to the improvised machine. The researcher also found out that good lamination are produced with the help of simple things that are involved in the physical materials of the improvised machine. Lastly, the researcher may therefore conclude that the improvised laminating machine is possible by the used of scrap metal, electricity and wild imagination of the researcher.

This research is highly recommended to all those students who wants to formulate another improvised materials from laminating machine. Though the concept of the work in this project is simple, the researcher are convincing those students to put more time and effort on the said study because of the involvement of electricity on the work. The researcher also encouraged those students to came up with different materials and engaged on the trial and error process so that they can proved that it works. And lastly, the researcher recommend this improvised laminating machine may be used so that further development may be witness and further study maybe conducted.


By way of summary, it can be stated that the invention herein provides means in the form of a flat bed type laminator but containing heaters operating at 180 – 220 F temperatures so that the 3mm laminating films may be laminated without distortion of the documents. In addition, a new medium for the object that made used of lamination has been substitute which actually performs and function as the conventional laminating machine in the market.

Title Page i
Acknowledgement ii
Abstract iii
CHAPTER I – Problem and its Setting
Introduction 1
Statement of the Problem and Specific Question 2
Significance of the Study 3
Scope and Delimination 4
Definition of Terms 5 - 6
CHAPTER II – Review of Related Literature 7 - 12
CHAPTER III – Methodology 13 - 14
CHAPTER IV – Analysis and Interpretation 15
CHAPTER V – Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation 16 - 18

The researchers would like to extent its gratefulness to all those people who made this improvised materials possible.
To our teacher, Mrs. Julie Ann B Landicho, for all those painstakingly bearing effort that she has given us through out our school year.
To our teachers, for all the effort and support that they had shared with us through our highschool days.
To our parents, for all the financial and moral support they had spared us, our love will always be with you.
To our technician and brainstorming buddies, for all those wild imaginations and freak inventions we had shared with.
And lastly, to our Almighty God, for the unconditional spirit he had given us in making this project successful.

INVENTIONS are made, technology may passed so quick,
But the mind of students putting all those wonders,
That what inventions don’t make.
Mabuhay, La Purisima Concepcion Academy..